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Lithium- or potassium-doped carbon nanotubes can absorb ∼20 or ∼14 weight percent of hydrogen at moderate (200° to 400°C) or room temperatures, respectively, under ambient pressure. These values are greater than those of metal hydride and cryoadsorption systems. The hydrogen stored in the lithium- or potassium-doped carbon nanotubes can be released at higher temperatures, and the sorption-desorption cycle can be repeated with little decrease in the sorption capacity. The high hydrogen-uptake capacity of these systems may be derived from the special open-edged, layered structure of the carbon nanotubes made from methane, as well as the catalytic effect of alkali metals.