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A capacitance standard based directly on the definition of capacitance was built. Single-electron tunneling devices were used to place N electrons of charge e onto a cryogenic capacitor C, and the resulting voltage change ΔV was measured. Repeated measurements ofC = Ne/ΔV with this method have a relative standard deviation of 0.3 × 10–6. This standard offers a natural basis for capacitance analogous to the Josephson effect for voltage and the quantum Hall effect for resistance.
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