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Theory Leads to Particles and Prize

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Science  22 Oct 1999:
Vol. 286, Issue 5440, pp. 667
DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5440.667a

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The 1999 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded last week to Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus Veltman, two Dutch physicists who refined the electroweak theory, a key part of particle physicists' theoretical map, so that it can be used to calculate particle masses and behaviors. Their techniques allowed precise predictions of the masses of force-carrying particles called W and Z particles, which were ultimately created and detected in 1983 at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory near Geneva.