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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase contains a rotary motor involved in biological energy conversion. Its membrane-embedded F0 sector has a rotation generator fueled by the proton-motive force, which provides the energy required for the synthesis of ATP by the F1 domain. An electron density map obtained from crystals of a subcomplex of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase shows a ring of 10 c subunits. Each c subunit forms an α-helical hairpin. The interhelical loops of six to seven of the c subunits are in close contact with the γ and δ subunits of the central stalk. The extensive contact between the c ring and the stalk suggests that they may rotate as an ensemble during catalysis.
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