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To elucidate mechanisms that control and execute activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) with an electrophysiological tag were expressed in rat hippocampal neurons. Long-term potentiation (LTP) or increased activity of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induced delivery of tagged AMPA-Rs into synapses. This effect was not diminished by mutating the CaMKII phosphorylation site on the GluR1 AMPA-R subunit, but was blocked by mutating a predicted PDZ domain interaction site. These results show that LTP and CaMKII activity drive AMPA-Rs to synapses by a mechanism that requires the association between GluR1 and a PDZ domain protein.