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Direct Condensation of Carboxylic Acids with Alcohols Catalyzed by Hafnium(IV) Salts

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Science  10 Nov 2000:
Vol. 290, Issue 5494, pp. 1140-1142
DOI: 10.1126/science.290.5494.1140

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Abstract

In order to promote atom efficiency in synthesis and to avoid the generation of environmental waste, the use of stoichiometric amounts of condensing reagents or excess substrates should be avoided. In esterification, excesses of either carboxylic acids or alcohols are normally needed. We show that the direct condensation of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids and alcohols can be achieved with the use of hafnium(IV) salts, such as commercially available hafnium(IV) chloride and hafnium(IV) tert-butoxide. The present method can be applied to direct polyesterification and may be suitable for large-scale operations.

  • * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yamamoto{at}cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

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