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One-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, represent the smallest dimension for efficient transport of electrons and excitons and thus are ideal building blocks for hierarchical assembly of functional nanoscale electronic and photonic structures. We report an approach for the hierarchical assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into well-defined functional networks. We show that nanowires can be assembled into parallel arrays with control of the average separation and, by combining fluidic alignment with surface-patterning techniques, that it is also possible to control periodicity. In addition, complex crossed nanowire arrays can be prepared with layer-by-layer assembly with different flow directions for sequential steps. Transport studies show that the crossed nanowire arrays form electrically conducting networks, with individually addressable device function at each cross point.