But Did They Mate?

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Science  02 Mar 2001:
Vol. 291, Issue 5509, pp. 1726
DOI: 10.1126/science.291.5509.1726

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If Neandertals and modern humans lived in close proximity for thousands of years (see main text), the obvious question is, did they mate? For scientists, children are the key issue. Successful reproduction would imply that Neandertals and humans were part of the same species and shared a recent evolutionary history.