Observation of Vortex Lattices in Bose-Einstein Condensates

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Science  20 Apr 2001:
Vol. 292, Issue 5516, pp. 476-479
DOI: 10.1126/science.1060182

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Quantized vortices play a key role in superfluidity and superconductivity. We have observed the formation of highly ordered vortex lattices in a rotating Bose-condensed gas. These triangular lattices contained over 100 vortices with lifetimes of several seconds. Individual vortices persisted up to 40 seconds. The lattices could be generated over a wide range of rotation frequencies and trap geometries, shedding light on the formation process. Our observation of dislocations, irregular structure, and dynamics indicates that gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates may be a model system for the study of vortex matter.

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