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Government and civil society representatives meet for a Special Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGASS) 25 to 27 June 2001 to consider an expanded response to HIV/AIDS. This policy forum estimates that by 2005, that response will require about US$9 billion annually, with half of these resources needed in sub-Saharan Africa. About US$4.8 billion is required for prevention including interventions focusing on youth, workplace programs, mother-to-child transmission and condom distribution. US$4.4 billion is needed for palliative care, treatment and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections, support for orphans, and antiretroviral therapy. One-third to one-half of these resources can come from domestic sources, both public and private, with the remainder needed from international sources.