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Recruitment of Mec1 and Ddc1 Checkpoint Proteins to Double-Strand Breaks Through Distinct Mechanisms

Science  26 Oct 2001:
Vol. 294, Issue 5543, pp. 867-870
DOI: 10.1126/science.1063827

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Abstract

In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells activate checkpoint pathways that arrest cell cycle progression and induce the expression of genes required for DNA repair. In budding yeast, the homothallic switching (HO) endonuclease creates a site-specific double-strand break at the mating type (MAT) locus. Continuous HOexpression results in the phosphorylation of Rad53, which is dependent on products of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated–related MEC1 gene and other checkpoint genes, including DDC1, RAD9, andRAD24. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the Ddc1 protein associates with a region near the MATlocus after HO expression. Ddc1 association required Rad24 but not Mec1 or Rad9. Mec1 also associated with a region near the cleavage site after HO expression, but this association is independent of Ddc1, Rad9, and Rad24. Thus, Mec1 and Ddc1 are recruited independently to sites of DNA damage, suggesting the existence of two separate mechanisms involved in recognition of DNA damage.

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: j46036a{at}nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

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