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An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication

Science  10 May 2002:
Vol. 296, Issue 5570, pp. 1106-1109
DOI: 10.1126/science.296.5570.1106

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Abstract

A two-photon–activatable photoacid generator, based on a bis[(diarylamino) styryl]benzene core with covalently attached sulfonium moieties, has been synthesized. The photoacid generator has both a large two-photon absorption cross section (δ = 690 × 10−50centimeter4 second per photon) and a high quantum yield for the photochemical generation of acid (φH + = 0.5). Under near-infrared laser irradiation, the molecule produces acid after two-photon excitation and initiates the polymerization of epoxides at an incident intensity that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than that needed for conventional ultraviolet-sensitive initiators. This photoacid generator was used in conjunction with a positive-tone chemically amplified resist for the fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) microchannel structure.

  • * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cober{at}ccmr.cornell.edu (C.K.O.); jwperry{at}u.arizona.edu(J.W.P.); smarder{at}u.arizona.edu (S.R.M.).

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