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Size homeostasis in budding yeast requires that cells grow to a critical size before commitment to division in the late prereplicative growth phase of the cell cycle, an event termed Start. We determined cell size distributions for the complete set of ∼6000Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains and identified ∼500 abnormally small (whi) or large (lge) mutants. Genetic analysis revealed a complex network of newly found factors that govern critical cell size at Start, the most potent of which were Sfp1, Sch9, Cdh1, Prs3, and Whi5. Ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to cell size through Sfp1, a transcription factor that controls the expression of at least 60 genes implicated in ribosome assembly. Cell growth and division appear to be coupled by multiple conserved mechanisms.