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Diamond Genesis, Seismic Structure, and Evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton

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Science  06 Sep 2002:
Vol. 297, Issue 5587, pp. 1683-1686
DOI: 10.1126/science.1072384

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Abstract

The lithospheric mantle beneath the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton of southern Africa shows variations in seismic P-wave velocity at depths within the diamond stability field that correlate with differences in the composition of diamonds and their syngenetic inclusions. Middle Archean mantle depletion events initiated craton keel formation and early harzburgitic diamond formation. Late Archean accretionary events involving an oceanic lithosphere component stabilized the craton and contributed a younger Archean generation of eclogitic diamonds. Subsequent Proterozoic tectonic and magmatic events altered the composition of the continental lithosphere and added new lherzolitic and eclogitic diamonds to the Archean diamond suite.

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