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Chromatin Loosening by Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila Puff Loci

Science  24 Jan 2003:
Vol. 299, Issue 5606, pp. 560-562
DOI: 10.1126/science.1078764

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Abstract

Steroid response and stress-activated genes such ashsp70 undergo puffing in Drosophila larval salivary glands, a local loosening of polytene chromatin structure associated with gene induction. We find that puffs acquire elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose modified proteins and that poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is required to produce normal-sized puffs and normal amounts of Hsp70 after heat exposure. We propose that chromosomal PARP molecules become activated by developmental or environmental cues and strip nearby chromatin proteins off DNA to generate a puff. Such local loosening may facilitate transcription and may transiently make protein complexes more accessible to modification, promoting chromatin remodeling during development.

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