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Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has dramatically increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in subSaharan Africa, where up to 60% of TB patients are coinfected with HIV and each year 200,000 TB deaths are attributable to HIV coinfection. Now HIV threatens control of TB in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can prevent TB by preserving immunity, but cohort analysis shows that early therapy, plus high levels of coverage and compliance, will be needed to avert a significant fraction of TB cases. However, ARV drugs could enhance the treatment of TB, and TB programs provide an important entry point for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.