Dual Activation of the Drosophila Toll Pathway by Two Pattern Recognition Receptors

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Science  19 Dec 2003:
Vol. 302, Issue 5653, pp. 2126-2130
DOI: 10.1126/science.1085432

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The Toll-dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA). A mutation termed osiris disrupts the Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) gene and leads to compromised survival of mutant flies after Gram-positive infections, but not after fungal or Gram-negative bacterial challenge. Our results demonstrate that GNBP1 and PGRP-SA can jointly activate the Toll pathway. The potential for a combination of distinct proteins to mediate detection of infectious nonself in the fly will refine the concept of pattern recognition in insects.

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