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Predatory bacteria remain molecularly enigmatic, despite their presence in many microbial communities. Here we report the complete genome of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, a predatory Gram-negative bacterium that invades and consumes other Gram-negative bacteria. Its surprisingly large genome shows no evidence of recent gene transfer from its prey. A plethora of paralogous gene families coding for enzymes, such as hydrolases and transporters, are used throughout the life cycle of B. bacteriovorus for prey entry, prey killing, and the uptake of complex molecules.