Optical Frequency Synthesis and Comparison with Uncertainty at the 10-19 Level

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Science  19 Mar 2004:
Vol. 303, Issue 5665, pp. 1843-1845
DOI: 10.1126/science.1095092

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A femtosecond laser–based optical frequency synthesizer is referenced to an optical standard, and we use it to demonstrate the generation and control of the frequency of electromagnetic fields over 100 terahertz of bandwidth with fractional uncertainties approaching 1 part in 1019. The reproducibility of this performance is verified by comparison of different types of femtosecond laser–based frequency synthesizers from three laboratories.

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