Applied Physics

Ferroelectric Lithography

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Science  04 Jun 2004:
Vol. 304, Issue 5676, pp. 1415
DOI: 10.1126/science.304.5676.1415a

Much like a pen on a piece of paper or a stick dragged through sand on a beach, probe microscopy methods have been used to pattern substrates, either through the deposition of molecules or by scratching the substrate. Arrays of probes can pattern with more than one “ink,” but there are limits to the complexity of the patterns that can be formed. By combining a ferroelectric substrate with redox chemical reactions, Kalinin et al. show that they can sequentially fabricate complex metal patterns. Using either barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate as their substrates, through the application of a local electric field, domains were produced with different orientations of the ferroelectric polarization. When subject to light above the bandgap wavelength, electron-hole pairs form according to the local ferroelectric polarization, and thus when immersed in a solution containing metal ions, they will be preferentially deposited on the positively oriented domains. Ag, Rh, Pd, Pt, and Au were successfully applied, and structures using many metals and functional organics could be built through a series of patterning and photoreduction cycles. — MSL

Adv. Mater. 16, 795 (2004).

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