Special Reviews

Cis-Acting Regulatory Variation in the Human Genome

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Science  22 Oct 2004:
Vol. 306, Issue 5696, pp. 647-650
DOI: 10.1126/science.1101659

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The systematic screening of the human genome for genetic variants that affect gene regulation should advance our fundamental understanding of phenotypic diversity and lead to the identification of alleles that modify disease risk. There are several challenges in localizing regulatory polymorphisms, including the wide spectrum of cis-acting regulatory mechanisms, the inconsistent effects of regulatory variants in different tissues, and the difficulty in isolating the causal variants that are in linkage disequilibrium with many other variants. We discuss the current state of knowledge and technologies used for mapping and characterizing genetic variation controlling human gene expression.

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