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Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

Science  22 Oct 2004:
Vol. 306, Issue 5696, pp. 666-669
DOI: 10.1126/science.1102896

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Abstract

We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 1013 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

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