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Recent evidence suggests a key role for the brain in the control of both body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems that regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and endogenous glucose production sense and respond to input from hormonal and nutrient-related signals that convey information regarding both body energy stores and current energy availability. In response to this input, adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels in the normal range. Defects in this control system are implicated in the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes.