Nodulation Signaling in Legumes Requires NSP2, a Member of the GRAS Family of Transcriptional Regulators

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Science  17 Jun 2005:
Vol. 308, Issue 5729, pp. 1786-1789
DOI: 10.1126/science.1110951

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Rhizobial bacteria enter a symbiotic interaction with legumes, activating diverse responses in roots through the lipochito oligosaccharide signaling molecule Nod factor. Here, we show that NSP2 from Medicago truncatula encodes a GRAS protein essential for Nod-factor signaling. NSP2 functions downstream of Nod-factor–induced calcium spiking and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We show that NSP2-GFP expressed from a constitutive promoter is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope and relocalizes to the nucleus after Nod-factor elicitation. This work provides evidence that a GRAS protein transduces calcium signals in plants and provides a possible regulator of Nod-factor–inducible gene expression.

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