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Activity in several areas of the human brain and the monkey brain increases when a subject anticipates events associated with a reward, implicating a role for bias of decision and action. However, in real life, events do not always appear as expected, and we must choose an undesirable action. More than half of the neurons in the monkey centromedian (CM) thalamus were selectively activated when a small-reward action was required but a large-reward option was anticipated. Electrical stimulation of the CM after a large-reward action request substituted a brisk performance with a sluggish performance. These results suggest involvement of the CM in a mechanism complementary to decision and action bias.