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Are Human Brains Still Evolving? Brain Genes Show Signs of Selection

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Science  09 Sep 2005:
Vol. 309, Issue 5741, pp. 1662-1663
DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5741.1662

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Two reports on pages 1717 and 1720 of this issue conclude that two genes thought to regulate human brain growth have continued to evolve under natural selection until recently--and perhaps are doing so today. And on page 1693, another team reports further evidence of the action of natural selection in people: A gene expressed in microglia, immune cells of the nervous system, produces a protein found only in humans.