Stable Carbon Cycle–Climate Relationship During the Late Pleistocene

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Science  25 Nov 2005:
Vol. 310, Issue 5752, pp. 1313-1317
DOI: 10.1126/science.1120130
  • Fig. 1.

    Dome C CO2 Bern data (black solid circles) are the mean of four to six samples, including the data from 31 depth intervals over termination V of (1); error bars denote 1σ of the mean. Red solid circles are test measurements with the use of the sublimation extraction technique. Dome C CO2 Grenoble data are shown as black open circles. Dome C CO2 measurements are connected with a blue line, and the high-resolution deuterium record is given as a black line (18). Benthic δ18O stack and benthic δ18O record from ODP site 980 are shown as a dark gray line (19) and a light gray line (1922), respectively. The EDC2 time scale for Dome C is the same as in (1) (the depths at the top of the figure are only valid for the CO2 record). Glacial terminations are given in roman numerals; marine isotope stages are given in arabic numerals according to (17).

  • Fig. 2.

    CO2 results of entire MIS 11, including end of MIS 12. Dome C CO2 Bern data (solid circles) from EPICA community members (1) and this work; error bars, 1σ of the mean. Dome C CO2 Grenoble data are indicated by open circles; error bars, accuracy of 2σ = 3 ppmv. High-resolution deuterium record is shown as a black line (18). Vostok CO2 Grenoble data are indicated by gray open diamonds; error bars, accuracy of 2σ = 3 ppmv on the corrected time scale (28).

  • Fig. 3.

    Correlation between δD, a proxy for Antarctic temperature, and CO2 for three data sets. The new data from Dome C cover the beginning of MIS 12 to MIS 16 (black solid circles; black line is the linear fit δD = 0.44‰ ppmv –1 × CO2 – 517.75‰, r2 = 0.57), and the period from MIS 1 to MIS 11 is covered by data from the Vostok ice core [gray solid circles (7); gray line is linear fit, δD = 0.50‰ ppmv–1 × CO2 – 575.86‰, r2 = 0.70] and Dome C Holocene and termination I [black open circles (9, 11); black dashed line is the linear fit, δD = 0.50‰ ppmv–1 × CO2 – 529.87‰, r2 = 0.84]. The offset in the δD values from these two cores is due to the different distances to the open ocean, elevations, and surface temperatures of the two sites (29).

  • Fig. 4.

    A composite CO2 record over six and a half ice age cycles, back to 650,000 years B.P. The record results from the combination of CO2 data from three Antarctic ice cores: Dome C (black), 0 to 22 kyr B.P. (9, 11) and 390 to 650 kyr B.P. [this work including data from 31 depth intervals over termination V of (1)]; Vostok (blue), 0 to 420 kyr B.P. (5, 7), and Taylor Dome (light green), 20 to 62 yr B.P. (8). Black line indicates δD from Dome C, 0 to 400 kyr B.P. (1) and 400 to 650 kyr B.P. (18). Blue line indicates δD from Vostok, 0 to 420 kyr B.P. (7).

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  • Stable Carbon Cycle�Climate Relationship During the Late Pleistocene
    Urs Siegenthaler, Thomas F. Stocker, Eric Monnin, Dieter Lüthi, Jakob Schwander, Bernhard Stauffer, Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnola, Hubertus Fischer, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jean Jouzel

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