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Measurement is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum-information processing systems. Partial measurement, where full wavefunction collapse is not the only outcome, provides a detailed test of the measurement process. We introduce quantum-state tomography in a superconducting qubit that exhibits high-fidelity single-shot measurement. For the two probabilistic outcomes of partial measurement, we find either a full collapse or a coherent yet nonunitary evolution of the state. This latter behavior explicitly confirms modern quantum-measurement theory and may prove important for error-correction algorithms in quantum computation.