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The links between the cell cycle machinery and the cytoskeletal proteins controlling cytokinesis are poorly understood. The small guanine nucleotide triphosphate (GTP)–binding protein RhoA stimulates type II myosin contractility and formin-dependent assembly of the cytokinetic actin contractile ring. We found that budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 controls the targeting and activation of Rho1 (RhoA) at the division site via Rho1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This role of Cdc5 (Polo-like kinase) in regulating Rho1 is likely to be relevant to cytokinesis and asymmetric cell division in other organisms.