What's in a Vaccine?

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Science  22 Dec 2006:
Vol. 314, Issue 5807, pp. 1837l
DOI: 10.1126/science.314.5807.1837l

After vaccination, the efficiency with which protective antibodies are produced often depends on the presence of an adjuvant, a substance that promotes activation of antibody-producing B cells. It has been anticipated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) might be major players in mediating the effects of adjuvants. However, Gavin et al. (p. 1936; see the news story by Wickelgren) now find that the known TLR pathways do not modulate B cell responses and so adjuvants containing TLR ligands must depend on other properties. Such a revision to thinking about the effects of TLR on B cell responses will likely refocus current thinking about vaccine development.

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