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An Ancient Mechanism Controls the Development of Cells with a Rooting Function in Land Plants

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Science  08 Jun 2007:
Vol. 316, Issue 5830, pp. 1477-1480
DOI: 10.1126/science.1142618

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  1. Fig. 1.

    AtRHD6 is a positive regulator of root hair development in A. thaliana. (A) Roots of Atrhd6-1, Atrhd6-2, and Atrhd6-3 mutants with their respective wild-type ecotype (WS, Wassìlewskìja; Col0, Columbia 0; L.e., Lansburg erecta) and complementation of the Atrhd6-3 mutant with a genomic AtRHD6p::GFP:AtRHD6 fusion. (B) Fluorescent image of the genomic AtRHD6p::GFP:AtRHD6 fusion in the Atrhd6-3 background showing AtRHD6 protein in hair cells nuclei. (C) Expression of the Atrhd6-2 enhancer trap GUS gene in root cross section. (D) Whole-mount longitudinal view of the expression of the enhancer trap GUS gene in Atrhd6-2 and in different backgrounds (cpc, wer, ttg1, and gl2). H, hair cell; N, non–hair cells; C, cortex. Scales bars, 500 μm (A), 50 μm (B), 25 μm (C), and 100 μm (D).

  2. Fig. 2.

    AtRSL1 positively regulates root hairs development in A. thaliana. (A) Roots of WT, Atrhd6-3 single mutant, Atrsl1-1 single mutant, Atrhd6-3 Atrsl1-1 double mutant, and Atrhd6-3 Atrsl1-1 double mutant bearing the AtRSL1p::GFP:AtRSL1 transgene. Plants were grown on MS media with sucrose overlaid with a cellophane disk to increase root hair production in the Atrhd6-3 mutant. (B) Fluorescent image of the genomic AtRSL1p::GFP:AtRSL1 fusion in the Atrhd6-3 Atrsl1-1 background showing AtRSL1 protein in hair cells nuclei. H, hair cell; N, non–hair cells. Scale bars, 500 μm (A) and 50 μm (B).

  3. Fig. 3.

    Relationship between RHD6-LIKE proteins from A. thaliana and P. patens. The tree is a strict consensus tree of 12 most parsimonious trees generated with the alignment of bHLH domains amino acids sequences shown in fig. S3. The A. thaliana genes used are the members of bHLH subfamily VIIIc, except AtIND (INDEHISCENT)/At4g00120, which was used as out-group and belongs to the bHLH subfamily VIIIb (9, 11, 21). P. patens PpRSL 1 to 7 sequences were obtained by BLAST of the P. patens genomic sequence. PpIND1 is a P. patens sequence similar to AtIND and a putative member of family VIIIb in P. patens. Numbers are bootstrap values and indicates an 82% level of confidence for the occurrence of the AtRHD6 clade. The brackets indicate the AtRHD6 clade and the sister clade.

  4. Fig. 4.

    PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 positively control the development of caulonemal cells and rhizoids in P. patens, and PpRSL1 and AtRHD6 have a conserved molecular function. (A and B) Eighteen-day-old protonema from WT, Pprsl1, and Pprsl2 single mutants, and Pprsl1 Pprsl2 double mutant, were grown from spores on 0.8% agar. (A) Whole protonema growing from a single spore. (B) Dissected filaments from protonema shown in (A). (C) Isolated 1-month-old gametophores. (D) Roots of the A. thaliana Atrhd6-3 mutant carrying the 35S::PpRSL1 transgene compared to WT and Atrhd6-3 roots. ca, caulonemal cell; ch, chloronemal cell; rh, rhizoid. Scale bars, 1 mm (A), 100 μm (B), 1 mm (C), and 500 μm (D).