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Genome-Wide Mapping of in Vivo Protein-DNA Interactions

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Science  08 Jun 2007:
Vol. 316, Issue 5830, pp. 1497-1502
DOI: 10.1126/science.1141319

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Abstract

In vivo protein-DNA interactions connect each transcription factor with its direct targets to form a gene network scaffold. To map these protein-DNA interactions comprehensively across entire mammalian genomes, we developed a large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIPSeq) based on direct ultrahigh-throughput DNA sequencing. This sequence census method was then used to map in vivo binding of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF; also known as REST, for repressor element–1 silencing transcription factor) to 1946 locations in the human genome. The data display sharp resolution of binding position [±50 base pairs (bp)], which facilitated our finding motifs and allowed us to identify noncanonical NRSF-binding motifs. These ChIPSeq data also have high sensitivity and specificity [ROC (receiver operator characteristic) area ≥ 0.96] and statistical confidence (P <10–4), properties that were important for inferring new candidate interactions. These include key transcription factors in the gene network that regulates pancreatic islet cell development.

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