Report

The Vaccine Adjuvant Monophosphoryl Lipid A as a TRIF-Biased Agonist of TLR4

Science  15 Jun 2007:
Vol. 316, Issue 5831, pp. 1628-1632
DOI: 10.1126/science.1138963

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Abstract

The inflammatory toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, is driven by the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain–containing adapter inducing interferon-β (TRIF), which together mediate signaling by the endotoxin receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a low-toxicity derivative of LPS with useful immunostimulatory properties, which is nearing regulatory approval for use as a human vaccine adjuvant. We report here that, in mice, the low toxicity of MPLA's adjuvant function is associated with a bias toward TRIF signaling, which we suggest is likely caused by the active suppression, rather than passive loss, of proinflammatory activity of this LPS derivative. This finding may have important implications for the development of future vaccine adjuvants.

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