A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems

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Science  15 Feb 2008:
Vol. 319, Issue 5865, pp. 948-952
DOI: 10.1126/science.1149345

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  1. Fig. 1.

    Global map (A) of cumulative human impact across 20 ocean ecosystem types. (Insets) Highly impacted regions in the Eastern Caribbean (B), the North Sea (C), and the Japanese waters (D) and one of the least impacted regions, in northern Australia and the Torres Strait (E).

  2. Fig. 2.

    Histogram of cumulative impact scores depicting the fraction of global area that falls within each impact category. There are no zeros; histogram bars are in bins of 0.1. Categories described in (17). (Insets) Expanded views of the tail of values.

  3. Fig. 3.

    The distribution of cumulative impact scores for each ecosystem in our analyses (means in parentheses). Individual ecosystem scores have a smaller range of values than cumulative impact scores (Fig. 2) because the latter sum all ecosystem-specific scores within a cell. Ground-truthed estimates of coral reef condition (17) were used to identify IE values at which coral reefs experience medium high to very high impact, as indicated on the coral reef histogram. Note differences in y-axis scales.

  4. Fig. 4.

    Total area affected (square kilometers, gray bars) and summed threat scores (rescaled units, black bars) for each anthropogenic driver (A) globally and (B) for all coastal regions <200 m in depth. Values for each bar are reported in millions.