Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization

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Science  15 May 2009:
Vol. 324, Issue 5929, pp. 910-913
DOI: 10.1126/science.1168996

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In conventional photolithography, diffraction limits the resolution to about one-quarter of the wavelength of the light used. We introduce an approach to photolithography in which multiphoton absorption of pulsed 800-nanometer (nm) light is used to initiate cross-linking in a polymer photoresist and one-photon absorption of continuous-wave 800-nm light is used simultaneously to deactivate the photopolymerization. By employing spatial phase-shaping of the deactivation beam, we demonstrate the fabrication of features with scalable resolution along the beam axis, down to a 40-nm minimum feature size. We anticipate application of this technique for the fabrication of diverse two- and three-dimensional structures with a feature size that is a small fraction of the wavelength of the light employed.

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