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Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of Membrane-Integral Diacylglycerol Kinase

Science  26 Jun 2009:
Vol. 324, Issue 5935, pp. 1726-1729
DOI: 10.1126/science.1171716

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Opening the Portico

Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) represents a family of integral membrane phosphotransferases that function in prokaryotic-specific metabolic pathways. Van Horn et al. (p. 1726) determined the structure of the 40-kilodalton functional homotrimer of E. coli DAGK by solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each monomer comprises three transmembrane helices. The third transmembrane helix from each subunit is domain-swapped to pack against the first and second transmembrane helices from an adjacent subunit. These three helices frame a portico-like membrane-submerged cavity that contains residues critical for activity in close proximity to residues critical for folding. The structure provides insight into the determinants of lipid substrate specificity and phosphotransferase activity.

Abstract

Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) represents a family of integral membrane enzymes that is unrelated to all other phosphotransferases. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the DAGK homotrimer with the use of solution nuclear magnetic resonance. The third transmembrane helix from each subunit is domain-swapped with the first and second transmembrane segments from an adjacent subunit. Each of DAGK’s three active sites resembles a portico. The cornice of the portico appears to be the determinant of DAGK’s lipid substrate specificity and overhangs the site of phosphoryl transfer near the water-membrane interface. Mutations to cysteine that caused severe misfolding were located in or near the active site, indicating a high degree of overlap between sites responsible for folding and for catalysis.

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

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