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The Case of the Midwife Toad: Fraud or Epigenetics?

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Science  04 Sep 2009:
Vol. 325, Issue 5945, pp. 1194-1195
DOI: 10.1126/science.325_1194

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Paul Kammerer has been called the perpetrator of one of the most celebrated scientific frauds of the early 20th century. He has also been defended as the victim of forgery by a lab assistant; some even say he was framed by political or scientific opponents. Now, a new analysis published this week suggests his infamous experiments may have been the first demonstrations of a recently recognized phenomenon: epigenetics.