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We describe a sensitive metabolite array for genome sequence–independent functional analysis of metabolic phenotypes and networks, the reactomes, of cell populations and communities. The array includes 1676 dye-linked substrate compounds collectively representing central metabolic pathways of all forms of life. Application of cell extracts to the array leads to specific binding of enzymes to cognate substrates, transformation to products, and concomitant activation of the dye signals. Proof of principle was shown by reconstruction of the metabolic maps of model bacteria. Utility of the array for unsequenced organisms was demonstrated by reconstruction of the global metabolisms of three microbial communities derived from acidic volcanic pool, deep-sea brine lake, and hydrocarbon-polluted seawater. Enzymes of interest are captured on nanoparticles coated with cognate metabolites, sequenced, and their functions unequivocally established.