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Science  18 Dec 2009:
Vol. 326, Issue 5960, pp. 1656-1660
DOI: 10.1126/science.326.5960.1656

18 December 2009

Edited by Edward W. Lempinen

International

Mission to Cuba Yields Hope for Expanded S&T Collaboration

With increasing high-level interest in easing tensions between the United States and Cuba, AAAS President Peter Agre led a delegation to the Caribbean nation for meetings aimed at building a foundation for expanded science and engineering cooperation in the years ahead.

Hopeful visit. In top-level meetings at the Havana headquarters of the Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, delegates discussed future scientific cooperative efforts between the two nations.

During the three-day visit, the Cubans and Americans agreed to explore areas in which both science and the public interest may be served by bilateral collaboration. In a series of interviews, members of the U.S. delegation identified several fields where the two nations might expand existing efforts or start new initiatives—from meteorology and marine sciences to infectious diseases and informal science education.

“This is one of these key events where you say it’s one small step forward, and a long journey lies ahead,” said Agre, a Nobel laureate in chemistry. “There’s a lot of political debate here in the United States—we very much tried to stay out of the politics... It was really just about the science.”

“Cuba takes so much pride in its science and medical capacities,” added Maxmillian Angerholzer III, executive director of the Richard Lounsbery Foundation. “When you’re trying to use science as a way to bring countries together, it’s best to do it when there are similar interests and shared goals.”

The visit, 10–13 November, brought together nongovernmental science and diplomacy leaders from the United States with science leaders from Cuban institutes and universities and staff from the influential Cuban Council of State. In addition, the U.S. delegation met with representatives of a number of foreign embassies and offices based in Havana, as well as the head of the U.S. interests section in Cuba. The delegation’s visit was funded by the Lounsbery Foundation.

The trip came at a time of growing interest in scientific engagement between the two neighbors. In October 2008, an editorial in

Science by Sergio Jorge Pastrana, foreign secretary of the Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, and Michael T. Clegg, foreign secretary of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, called for both nations to take actions to encourage expanded scientific and engineering relationships. President Barack Obama last spring moved to allow the freer flow of information and humanitarian aid to Cuba, and members of the U.S. Congress are looking at easing or ending the travel ban to the nation.

Delegation member Patrick C. Doherty, director of the U.S.-Cuba Policy Initiative for the New America Foundation, said the current effort at science and technology (S&T) engagement is only the third since the 1960s. In 1997, while president of AAAS, environmental microbiologist Rita Colwell led a three-person delegation that visited Cuban government and science centers. AAAS’s Center for Science Diplomacy played a central role with Doherty in organizing the most recent visit.

Center Director Vaughan Turekian, who also serves as AAAS’s chief international officer, said progress toward the meetings was slowed by hurricanes that caused extensive damage across the length of Cuba last fall. But in October, Turekian was in Japan for the annual Science, Technology and Society forum. While there, he met Fidel Ángel Castro Díaz-Balart—Fidel Castro’s oldest son—a nuclear physicist and leader in his nation’s science policy community.

“I was able to tell him about our planned delegation and the fact that Peter Agre would be leading it,” Turekian said. “He was very receptive and helped facilitate a meeting with his own staff when we were in Havana.”

Other members of the U.S. delegation were Anthony “Bud” Rock, chief executive officer of the Association of Science and Technology Centers; retired U.S. Army Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, former chief of staff to U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell and now professor of government at the College of William and Mary; Anya Landau French, director of research for the U.S.-Cuba Policy Initiative at the New America Foundation; and Steven Clemons, senior fellow and director of the American Strategy Program at the New America Foundation.

Along with talks on research collaboration, Rock said, the delegation also spent “considerable time” discussing how “to make sure the results of that research are put to work for the people.”

Agre described “a spark of friendship” that he experienced in a meeting where he sat with Pastrana and Academia de Ciencias President Dr. Ismael Clark Arxer. “We didn’t know each other before ... but there was a common bond of science that just broke through,” he said.

Still, Agre and others noted the continuing embargo and tension in governmental relations, and they cautioned against raising hopes too quickly for scientific cooperation.

“There’s only so much we can do right now,” said Angerholzer. “Perhaps what’s more important is that we’re building bridges that can be utilized in the future. Science and medicine are areas that can be scaled up right away if relations are someday normalized.”

Regional Divisions

Teachable Moments at AAAS Caribbean Meeting

SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico—On matters of science education and public engagement, Daniel Altschuler is a realist. As a popular author and former director of the Arecibo Observatory, he knows firsthand that even people with scant scientific background are fascinated by the question of life on other planets.

Daniel R. Altschuler

And so, as he stood before an audience that included many young students and their teachers at the annual conference of the AAAS Caribbean Division, Altschuler recognized an opportunity. He opened his talk by surveying the depiction of UFOs and aliens in history and in today’s popular culture; then, with his audience hooked, he segued into plain-spoken lessons on cosmology, chemistry, and even mathematics that must guide any scientific effort to explore the realms beyond Earth.

It was a signature moment at the Caribbean Division’s annual conference, held 24 October at the Puerto Rico Convention Center. The day-long event featured talks on Darwin, microbes, and the International Year of Astronomy, plus “green chemistry” workshops for students at different levels—but the overarching theme was building public interest in science.

“We strongly believe that the public, including poor and disadvantaged groups, has the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications,” said division President Jorge Colón, an associate professor of chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico. “But that right can only be fulfilled if science and technology are broadly available and accessible so that all members of society will appreciate them [and] understand their significance.”

Antonio Lazcano

The two headline speakers—Altschuler and Mexican biologist Antonio Lazcano—have strong international credentials.

Lazcano is a professor at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City. He has studied the origin and early evolution of life for more than 35 years, and his 1984 book, El Origen de la Vida (The Origin of Life), has sold more than 600,000 copies. He was the first Latin American scientist to serve as president of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life.

Altschuler is the author of Children of the Stars (2002), published in Spanish as Hijos de las Estrellas. The conference was dedicated to Altschuler for his long work in promoting science at Arecibo, where he led the effort to build a visitors center, and in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean region.

Each scholar, in his talks, drew the connection between the origin of life on Earth and the remarkable story of the universe. And in interviews, each expressed concern that the worldwide recession is reducing resources for science education and public outreach.

Latin America has produced “extraordinary writers, extraordinary painters, extraordinary artists,” Lazcano said. “Clearly we have the intellectual capacity to produce extraordinary scientists. But that requires a long-term vision from politicians and from society to demand that the investments—not only economic, but social and political—continue regardless of the changes in regimes or the economy.”

Failure to make that investment leaves segments of society cut off from knowledge, and that leaves them vulnerable to the appeal of creationists, Lazcano said.

Altschuler would like to see a major regional science center in Puerto Rico—a museum that could inspire visitors while helping to support science teachers and journalists.

“It’s an investment in the future,” he said. “If you get one out of 100 kids who visit to pursue a career in science or engineering or math, you begin to get a very real return on your investment.”

AAAS Abelson Series

Top Researchers Share Translation Successes

Pioneering efforts to rapidly transfer laboratory insights into clinics, and vice versa, were the focus of the 2009 Abelson Advancing Science event at AAAS.

Two top researchers—Hal Dietz and Erin Lavik—described laboratory insights that have evolved into projects intended to help people with glaucoma, spinal cord injuries, and other diseases rare and common.

Their “gutsy,” groundbreaking work exemplifies the approach necessary for speeding medical advances, said event moderator Elias Zerhouni, M.D., chief scientific adviser for Science Translational Medicine. The 20 November discussions on “Translational Medicine and Human Health” honored the late Philip Hauge Abelson, a longtime AAAS senior adviser and Science editor emeritus.

Too often, Zerhouni said, basic advances have not translated into medical breakthroughs. Work in model systems may not always translate to human-scale problems. Inadequate funding may be another part of the problem: The U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceuticals sectors in 2008 spent more than $60 billion on research and development—an investment roughly twice the size of the budget of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Zerhouni said.

“There is no magic solution,” said Zerhouni, a senior fellow with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and former NIH director. “But we’d better find a solution,” given the burden of disease.

Lavik described tiny capsules designed to slowly release protective drops into the eyes of glaucoma patients. Lavik, who holds the Elmer Lindseth Chair of Biomedical Engineeering at Case Western Reserve University, has also combined blood vessel and neural stem cells with a polymer matrix to generate new blood vessels and rebuild the blood—spinal cord barrier of injured animals. Her latest project—using a nanoparticle to activate blood platelets—might someday improve trauma care by slowing the bleeding that exacerbates spinal cord damage after an injury.

“We have to listen to the clinician,” Lavik advised fellow researchers. “We can have wonderful conversations about building new technologies and translating those technologies.”

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Dietz, the Victor A. McKusick Professor of Genetics and Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, began his research on Marfan syndrome out of concern for patients with the rare genetic disease. But he also thought that understanding the disorder, which can cause severe heart defects, might offer insights into more common conditions.

In mice, the blood-pressure medicine losartan blocked the activity of a growth factor, TGFβ, and prevented aneurysm. Evidence of similar protection was seen among children with severe Marfan syndrome, resulting in a clinical trial. “To date, we’ve treated 19 such children,” Dietz said. “On average, [they] were growing their aortas by 4 millimeters per year, every year prior to this medication, and only 0.4 millimeters a year after starting losartan.”

He also investigated treating mitral valve disease with losartan, and he applied a TGFβ blocker to normalize muscle performance in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In early studies with Enid Neptune, he is trying to block TGFβ in common forms of lung disease, including emphysema induced by cigarette-smoke exposure.

Translating promising results to improve human welfare will require “more basic research and greater and more diverse multidisciplinary interactions,” Zerhouni said.

Association Affairs

AAAS Members Elected as Fellows

In November, the AAAS Council elected 531 members as Fellows of AAAS. These individuals will be recognized for their contributions to science and technology at the Fellows Forum to be held on 20 February 2010 during the AAAS Annual Meeting in San Diego. The new Fellows will receive a certificate and a blue and gold rosette as a symbol of their distinguished accomplishments. Presented by section affiliation, they are:

Section on Agriculture, Food, and Renewable Resources

Caitilyn Allen, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Steven R. Archer, Univ. of Arizona • David D. Baltensperger, Texas A&M Univ. • Wilbert H. Blackburn, USDA • Michael D. Casler, USDA • Joseph Chappell, Univ. of Kentucky • Robert Bruce Goldberg, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Peter K. Hepler, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst • Harry J. Klee, Univ. of Florida • Donald P. Knowles, Washington State Univ. • Clint W. Magill, Texas A&M Univ. • Ronald J. Nachman, USDA • Henry T. Nguyen, Univ. of Missouri • Peggy Ozias-Akins, Univ. of Georgia • Ivette Perfecto, Univ. of Michigan • Gary A. Peterson, Colorado State Univ. • Anireddy Reddy, Colorado State Univ. • Robert Schmidt, Univ. of California, San Diego • David Spooner, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Bruce E. Tabashnik, Univ. of Arizona • Ewen Cameron David Todd, Michigan State Univ. • George F. Vance, Univ. of Wyoming • Donald P. Weeks, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln • Valerie Moroz Williamson, Univ. of California, Davis • Carol E. Windels, Univ. of Minnesota

Section on Anthropology

Susan M. Cachel, Rutgers Univ. • Diane Zaino Chase, Univ. of Central Florida • Katerina Harvati, Eberhard Karls University of Tübigen • Andrew Hill, Yale Univ. • Gary D. James, Binghamton Univ., SUNY • Ellen Messer, Brandeis Univ. • Yolanda Moses, Univ. of California, Riverside • Lynnette Leidy Sievert, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst

Section on Astronomy

James M. Cordes, Cornell Univ. • Eileen D. Friel, Lowell Observatory • Philip R. Goode, Big Bear Solar Observatory • Alyssa A. Goodman, Harvard Univ. • Christopher Impey, Univ. of Arizona • Mario Livio, Space Telescope Science Institute • Kevin Marvel, American Astronomical Society • Ramesh Narayanan, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics • Patrick S. Osmer, Ohio State Univ. • Lawrence A. Taylor, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Saeqa Dil Vrtilek, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory • David Hal Weinberg, Ohio State Univ.

Section on Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences

Meinrat O. Andreae, Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry • Ronald Benner, Univ. of South Carolina • Mark A. Brzezinski, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • John W. Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution • John E, Kutzbach, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Diane M. McKnight, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder • Jonathan Overpeck, Univ. of Arizona • Joyce E. Penner, Univ. of Michigan • Stephanie L. Pfirman, Barnard College • Philip J. Rasch, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Armistead G. Russell, Georgia Institute of  Technology

Section on Biological Sciences

David B. Allison, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham • Frances H. Arnold, California Institute of Technology • Sarah Assmann, Pennsylvania State Univ. • James R. Baker, Jr., Univ. of Michigan • Utpal Banerjee, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Etty (Tika) Benveniste, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham • Randy Dean Blakeley, Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine • Michael Boehnke, Univ. of Michigan • S. Marc Breedlove, Michigan State Univ. • David D. Breshears, Univ. of Arizona • Anthony Paul Bretscher, Cornell Univ. • Bonita J. Brewer, Univ. of Washington • Terry M. Bricker, Louisiana State Univ. • W. Zacheus Cande, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Ing-Ming Chiu, Ohio State Univ. • James Edward Cleaver, Univ. of California, San Francisco • Timothy Close, Univ. of California, Riverside • Pierre A. Coulombe, Johns Hopkins Univ. • Harry A. Dailey, Jr., Univ. of Georgia • Ross E. Dalbey, Ohio State Univ. • Ronald L. Davis, Baylor College of Medicine • Richard J. Debus, Univ. of California, Riverside • Darleen A. DeMason, Univ. of California, Riverside • James K. Detling, Colorado State Univ. • Janis Lou Dickinson, Cornell Univ. • Barry J. Dickson, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology • John E. Donelson, Univ. of Iowa • Timothy Donohue, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Michael E. Dorcas, Davidson College • David Draper, Johns Hopkins Univ. • Stuart E. Dryer, Univ. of Houston • Natalia Dudareva, Purdue Univ. • Jay Clark Dunlap, Dartmouth Medical School • Scott V. Edwards, Harvard Univ. • Peggy Farnham, Univ. of California, Davis • Donna Fekete, Purdue Univ. • Mauro Ferrari, Univ. of Texas, Houston • Carol Lynn Folt, Dartmouth College • Steven A. Frank, Univ. of California, Irvine • Bernd Fritzsch, Univ. of Iowa • William E. Fry, Cornell Univ. • Steven D. Gaines, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Sandra J. Gendler, Mayo Clinic • Mark Gerstein, Yale Univ. • J. Whitfield Gibbons, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory • Alfred L. Goldberg, Harvard Medical School • Erich Grotewold, Ohio State Univ. • David M. Haaland, Sandia National Laboratories • Mark S. Hafner, Louisiana State Univ. • Klaus Hahn, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill • Jonathan Haines, Vanderbilt Univ. • Sarah Carter Hake, USDA • Michael N. Hall, Univ. of Basel, Biozentrum • Mary Ann Handel, The Jackson Laboratory • F. Ulrich Hartl, Max-Planck Institute of Biochemistry • Graham F. Hatfull, Univ. of Pittsburgh • Norman B. Hecht, Univ. of Pennsylvania • S. Blair Hedges, Pennsylvania State Univ. • Rogene F. Henderson, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute • Vincent J. Hilser, Univ. of Texas, Galveston • James T. Hollibaugh, Univ. of Georgia • Austin L. Hughes, Univ. of South Carolina • Mary Hunzicker-Dunn, Washington State Univ. • Thomas E. Johnson, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder • Peter A. Jones, Univ. of Southern California • Cynthia M. Jones, Old Dominion Univ. • Jerry Kaplan, Univ. of Utah School of Medicine • Richard Karban, Univ. of California, Davis • Steve A. Kay, Univ. of California, San Diego • Kenneth J. Kemphues, Cornell Univ. • Ellen D. Ketterson, Indiana Univ. • Joseph Kieber, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill • Thomas S. Kilduff, SRI International • Marc W. Kirschner, Harvard Medical School • Todd Robert Klaenhammer, North Carolina State Univ. • Alan K. Knapp, Colorado State Univ. • Duncan C. Krause, Univ. of Georgia • Robert L. Last, Michigan State Univ. • Frederick C. Leung, Univ. of Hong Kong • Daniel J. Lew, Duke Univ. Medical Center • Anthony D. Long, Univ. of California, Irvine • Robert J. Maier, Univ. of Georgia • Thomas E. Martin, Univ. of Montana • Barry R. Masters, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Makoto Matsuoka, Nagoya Univ. • Gary Frederick McCracken, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Don J. Melnick, Columbia Univ. • Mary Ann Moran, Univ. of Georgia • James Thomas Morris, Univ. of South Carolina • Donna M. Murasko, Drexel Univ. • Karin Musier-Forsyth, Ohio State Univ. • John H. Nilson, Washington State Univ. • Donald R. Ort, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Mark A. Peifer, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill • Cynthia B. Peterson, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Catherine M. Pringle, Univ. of Georgia • Stephen W. Ragsdale, Univ. of Michigan Medical School • John N. Reeve, Ohio State Univ. • Erle S. Robertson, Univ. of Pennsylvania • G. Shirleen Roeder, Yale Univ. • Mark D. Rose, Princeton Univ. • Joan B. Rose, Michigan State Univ. • Michael G. Rosenfeld, Univ. of California, San Diego • Jay A. Rosenheim, Univ. of California, Davis • John R. Roth, Univ. of California, Davis • David D. Sabatini, New York Univ. School of Medicine • Osvaldo Esteban Sala, Brown Univ. • Virginia M. Sanders, Ohio State Univ. • Michael Scanlon, Cornell Univ. • Daniel Schlenk, Univ. of California, Riverside • John Scott, Univ. of Washington • Raymond D. Semlitsch, Univ. of Missouri • Andrey S. Shaw, Washington Univ. in St. Louis • Jen Sheen, Massachusetts General Hospital • Thomas E. Shenk, Princeton Univ. • Charles J. Sherr, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital • Yigong Shi, Tsinghua Univ. School of Medicine • Gerald I. Shulman, Yale School of Medicine • Gail Entner Sonenshein, Boston Univ. School of Medicine • Michael Robert Stallcup, Univ. of Southern California • Michael F. Summers, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County • Lorraine S. Symington, Columbia Univ. College of Physicians & Surgeons • James M. Tepper, Rutgers Univ. • Bruce Tidor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Liang Tong, Columbia Univ. • Judith L. Van Houten, Univ. of Vermont • Willem F. J. Vermaas, Arizona State Univ. • Xiao-Fan Wang, Duke Univ. Medical Center • Stephen G. Weller, Univ. of California, Irvine • Charlene J. Williams, Thomas Jefferson Univ. • Dennis R. Winge, Univ. of Utah • Curt Wittenberg, Scripps Research Institute • Cynthia Wolberger, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine • Larry James Young, Emory Univ. School of Medicine • Su-May Yu, Institute of Molecular Biology, Taiwan • Maria Elena Zavala, California State Univ., Northridge • Huimin Zhao, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Section on Chemistry

Mufit Akinc, Iowa State Univ. • Yitzhak Apeloig, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology • R. Thomas Baker, Univ. of Ottawa • Simon R. Bare, UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company • Alison A. Baski, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. • Hagan Bayley, Univ. of Oxford • Tadgh P. Begley, Cornell Univ. • Philip C. Bevilacqua, Pennsylvania State Univ. • Robert K. Boeckman, Jr., Univ. of Rochester • Jillian M. Buriak, Univ. of Alberta • Judith N. Burstyn, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Richard A. Cerione, Cornell Univ. College of Veterinary Medicine • Richard Chamberlin, Univ. of California, Irvine • Chung-Hsuan Chen, Academia Sinica Genomics Research Center • Eric L. Chronister, Univ. of California, Riverside • Robert Norman Compton, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Victoria J. DeRose, Univ. of Oregon • Barry Dellinger, Louisiana State Univ. • Francis J. DiSalvo, Cornell Univ. • Martin Egli, Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine • Jack H. Freed, Cornell Univ. • Barbara J. Garrison, Pennsylvania State Univ. • Michael H. Gelb, Univ. of Washington • Andrew A. Gewirth, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Hilary A. Godwin, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Mark S. Gordon, Iowa State Univ. • Gregory V. Hartland, Univ. of Notre Dame • Marc A. Hillmyer, Univ. of Minnesota • Melissa A. Hines, Cornell Univ. • Kerry Wayne Hipps, Washington State Univ. • Mei Hong, Iowa State Univ. • Gordon D. Jarvinen, Los Alamos National Laboratory • William D. Jones, Univ. of Rochester • Jay A. Labinger, California Institute of Technology • Yuehe Lin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Peter H. McBreen, Laval Univ. • James A. McCloskey, Univ. of Utah • Frank J. Millero, Univ. of Miami • Francis S. Millett, Univ. of Arkansas • Glenn Millhauser, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz • David J. Norris, Univ. of Minnesota • James S. Nowick, Univ. of California, Irvine • Bruce Parkinson, Univ. of Wyoming • Jeanne E. Pemberton, Univ. of Arizona • Kimberly Prather, Univ. of California, San Diego • Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Univ. of Michigan • Thomas B. Rauchfuss, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Norbert O. Reich, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Kathleen S. Rein, Florida International Univ. • Mary T. Rodgers, Wayne State Univ. • Vincent Rotello, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst • Michael J. Sepaniak, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Ron L. Shepard, Argonne National Laboratory • Susan B. Sinnott, Univ. of Florida • Kevin Malcolm Smith, Louisiana State Univ. • Steven A. Soper, Louisiana State Univ. • Jeffrey I. Steinfeld, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • James C. Stevens, The Dow Chemical Co. • Richard E. Taylor, Univ. of Notre Dame • Michael L. Thompson, Iowa State Univ. • James M. Tour, Rice Univ. • Michael Trenary, Univ. of Illinois, Chicago • David R. Tyler, Univ. of Oregon • John F. Wacker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Frank A. Weinhold, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • James C. Weisshaar, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Mary J. Wirth, Univ. of Arizona • Sotiris S. Xantheas, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Hans-Conrad zur Loye, Univ. of South Carolina

Section on Dentistry and Oral Health Sciences

Margaret R. Byers, Univ. of Washington

Section on Education

Marjorie G. Bardeen, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory • David Brakke, James Madison Univ. • Stacey Lowery Bretz, Miami Univ. • Dennis William Cheek, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation • E. Gordon Gee, Ohio State Univ. • Norman G. Lederman, Illinois Institute of Technology • Julie A. Luft, Arizona State Univ. • Catherine Manduca, Carleton College • Jeanne L. Narum, Project Kaleidoscope • Jo Ellen Roseman, AAAS Project 2061 • Anita Roychoudhury, Purdue Univ. • Kathryn Scantlebury, Univ. of Delaware • Judith Scotchmoor, Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology • Susan Singer, Carleton College • Marcy Hamby Towns, Purdue Univ.

Section on Engineering

Metin Akay, Arizona State Univ. • Gang Bao, Georgia Institute of Technology • Sankar Basu, National Science Foundation • Yildiz Bayazitoglu, Rice Univ. • C. Philip Chen, Univ. of Texas, San Antonio • Gang Chen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • William Cluett, Univ. of Toronto • Narendra B. Dahotre, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Gordon W. Day, Retired • Nader Engheta, Univ. of Pennsylvania • Katherine Whittaker Ferrara, Univ. of California, Davis • Gary C. Gimmestad, Georgia Institute of Technology • Ibrahim N. Hajj, American Univ. of Beirut • Qing Hu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Roger D. Kamm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Bryan Karney, Univ. of Toronto • Michael E. Kassner, Univ. of Southern California • Susan Kauzlarich, Univ. of California, Davis • Moe A. Khaleel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Rajinder P. Khosla, National Science Foundation • Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Pennsylvania State Univ. • Jerry Y.S. Lin, Arizona State Univ. • Vladimir Mitin, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY • Javad Mostaghimi, Univ. of Toronto • David R. Myers, Sandia National Laboratories • Walid A. Najjar, Univ. of California, Riverside • Shrikanth Narayanan, Univ. of Southern California • Charles C. Nguyen, Catholic Univ. of America • Lukas Novotny, Univ. of Rochester • Arogyaswami Joseph Paulraj, Stanford Univ. • Viktor K. Prasanna, Univ. of Southern California • Seeram Ramakrishna, National Univ. of Singapore • Ravi Ravindran, Ryerson Univ. • Jeffrey Allen Reimer, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Debra R. Reinhart, Univ. of Central Florida • Sunil Saigal, New Jersey Institute of Technology • Mohammad Samimy, Ohio State Univ. • Edward H. Sargent, Univ. of Toronto • Peter Searson, Johns Hopkins Univ. • Mubarak Shah, Univ. of Central Florida • Ram D. Sriram, National Institute of Standards and Technology • Tirumalai S. Srivatsan, Univ. of Akron • Chai Keong Toh, ALICO Inc., USA • Kimon P. Valavanis, Univ. of Denver • Kalliat T. Valsaraj, Louisiana State Univ. • Dionisios (Dion) G. Vlachos, Univ. of Delaware • Mark R. Wiesner, Duke Univ. • Denis Wirtz, Johns Hopkins Univ.

Section on General Interest in Science and Engineering

Paula Apsell, WGBH, Boston • T. David Bass, Univ. of Central Oklahoma • Beryl Lieff Benderly, Journalist • Linda Billings, SETI Institute • Deborah L. Blum, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • James C. Cornell, International Science Writers Association • David Gerald Gallo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute • Jeffrey S. Grabmeier, Ohio State Univ. • Daniel J. McCleese, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Section on Geology and Geography

Raymond S. Bradley, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst • Owen P. Bricker, U.S. Geological Survey • Daniel G. Brown, Univ. of Michigan • Anne E. Carey, Ohio State Univ. • Mary Anne Carroll, Univ. of Michigan • Richard Church, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Frank W. Davis, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Donald J. DePaolo, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Robert T. Downs, Univ. of Arizona • William Ewart Easterling, III, Pennsylvania State Univ. • Brooks B. Ellwood, Louisiana State Univ. • Joan J. Fitzpatrick, U.S. Geological Survey • John J. Flynn, American Museum of Natural History • William L. Graf, Univ. of South Carolina • Robyn E. Hannigan, Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston • Jonathan Harbor, Purdue Univ. • Carol P. Harden, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Stephen T. Jackson, Univ. of Wyoming • Mei-Po Kwan, Ohio State Univ. • Thorne Lay, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz • Timothy W. Lyons, Univ. of California, Riverside • William S. Reeburgh, Univ. of California, Irvine • Roberta L. Rudnick, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • William Schlesinger, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies • Robert C. Thunell, Univ. of South Carolina • Samuel Justin Traina, Univ. of California, Merced • Peter E. van Keken, Univ. of Michigan

Section on History and Philosophy of Science

Garland E. Allen, Washington Univ. in St. Louis • Daniel C. Dennett, Tufts Univ. • Maura Flannery, St. John’s Univ. • Anita Guerrini, Oregon State Univ. • Manfred Laubichler, Arizona State Univ.

Section on Industrial Science and Technology

Russell J. Churchill, American Research Corporation of Virginia • Albert Migliori, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Section on Information, Computing, and Communication

Marc Auslander, IBM Watson Research Center • Richard G. Baraniuk, Rice Univ. • Alok Choudhary, Northwestern Univ. • Narsingh Deo, Univ. of Central Florida • James A. Gosling, Sun Microsystems • Anthony J.G. Hey, Microsoft Corp. • Eric Horvitz, Microsoft Corp. • Henry C. Kelly, U.S. Department of Energy • Thomas F. Knight, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • David B. Lomet, Microsoft Corp. • Keshav K. Pingali, Univ. of Texas, Austin • Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Univ. of Connecticut • Jeffrey S. Vitter, Texas A&M Univ. • Ouri Wolfson, Univ. of Illinois, Chicago

Section on Linguistics and Language Science

Edward L. Keenan, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Ellen Friedman Prince, Univ. of Pennsylvania • Sarah Grey Thomason, Univ. of Michigan

Section on Mathematics

Bjorn Birnir, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Sylvia Trimble Bozeman, Spelman College • Alfred Hales, Institute for Defense Analyses • Suzanne Lenhart, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Jeffery D. McNeal, Ohio State Univ. • Robert E. Megginson, Univ. of Michigan • Juan C. Meza, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • Philippe Tondeur, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Alan Tucker, SUNY Stony Brook

Section on Medical Sciences

Ann M. Arvin, Stanford Univ. • Eric Chivian, Harvard Medical School • James E. Crowe, Jr., Vanderbilt Medical Center • Michael L. Dustin, New York Univ. School of Medicine • Kathryn M. Edwards, Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine • Paul R. Epstein, Harvard Medical School • Stephen Friend, Merck Research Laboratories • Laurie Glimcher, Harvard School of Public Health • Gökhan Hotamisligil, Harvard School of Public Health • Billy Gerald Hudson, Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine • Scott Hultgren, Washington Univ. School of Medicine in St. Louis • Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health • Karla Kirkegaard, Stanford Univ. • Leo Lefrancois, Univ. of Connecticut Health Center • Michael Lenardo, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH • David Levy, New York Univ. School of Medicine • Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Columbia Univ. Medical Center • Maurine Linder, Cornell University • W. Ian Lipkin, Columbia Univ. • Stephen S. Morse, Columbia Univ. • Louis J. Muglia, Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center • Vassilios Papadopoulos, McGill Univ. • Steven Marc Paul, Eli Lilly & Co. • Roger Matthew Perlmutter, Amgen, Inc. • M. Ian Phillips, Keck Graduate Institute • Susan R. Ross, Univ. of Pennsylvania • Peter Sarnow, Stanford Univ. • Jonathan D. Smith, Cleveland Clinic • Mark A. Smith, Case Western Reserve Univ. • Joseph W. St. Geme III, Duke Univ. Medical Center • Jurg Tschopp, Univ. of Lausanne • Eric Verdin, Univ. of California, San Francisco • Christopher A. Walsh, Children’s Hospital, Boston • Kai W. Wucherpfenning, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute • Wayne Yokoyama, Washington Univ. School of Medicine in St. Louis • Junying Yuan, Harvard Medical School

Section on Neuroscience

Thomas D. Albright, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies • David G. Amaral, Univ. of California, Davis • Heinrich Betz, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research • William A. Catterall, Univ. of Washington • Don W. Cleveland, Univ. of California, San Diego • Catherine Dulac, Harvard Univ. • Jack L. Feldman, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Harold Gainer, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/NIH • Craig Edward Jahr, Oregon Health & Science Univ. • Philip W. Landfield, Univ. of Kentucky College of Medicine • David J. Linden, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine • Ian Parker, Univ. of California, Irvine • Tomaso A. Poggio, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Julio J. Ramirez, Davidson College • James Surmeier, Northwestern Univ. • Michael J. Zigmond, Univ. of Pittsburgh • Stuart M. Zola, Yerkes National Primate Research Center

Section on Pharmaceutical Sciences

Rajesh Agarwal, Univ. of Colorado, Denver • John F. Carpenter, Univ. of Colorado, Denver • Stephen L. Eck, Eli Lilly and Company • Candace Johnson, Roswell Park Cancer Institute • Robert J. Linhardt, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute • Gary G. Meadows, Washington State Univ. • Lee Roy Morgan, Univ. of New Orleans • Ruiwen Zhang, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham

Section on Physics

Philip B. Allen, SUNY Stony Brook • Gordon J. Aubrecht, II, Ohio State Univ. • Elizabeth J. Beise, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • James E. Brau, Univ. of Oregon • Scott A. Chambers, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Liu Chen, Univ. of California, Irvine • David Hand Coward, Stanford Univ. • John P. Cumalat, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder • Elbio R. Dagotto, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Bernard Delley, Paul Scherrer Institute • Jonathan P. Dowling, Louisiana State Univ. • H. Frederick Dylla, American Institute of Physics • Leon Glass, McGill Univ. • William H. Goldstein, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory • Jordan A. Goodman, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • J. Michael F. Gunn, Univ. of Birmingham • Lene V. Hau, Harvard Univ. • JoAnne L. Hewett, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory • Wilson Ho, Univ. of California, Irvine • Barbara V. Jacak, SUNY Stony Brook • Chi-Chang Kao, Brookhaven National Laboratory • Stuart A. Kauffman, Univ. of Calgary • Leong Chuan Kwek, Nanyang Technical Univ., NIE • Thomas W. Ludlam, Brookhaven National Laboratory • Patricia L. McBride, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory • Bernardo Gabriel Mindlin, Universidad de Buenos Aires • Stephen E. Nagler, Oak Ridge National Laboratory • Witold Nazarewicz, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • David P. Norton, Univ. of Florida • John A. Parmentola, General Atomics • John Brian Pendry, Imperial College London • Michael E. Peskin, Stanford Univ. • Pierre Petroff, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara • Anant K. Ramdas, Purdue Univ. • John Sarrao, Los Alamos National Laboratory • Joseph W. Serene, American Physical Society • Yuen-Ron Shen, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Francis Slakey, American Physical Society • Darryl L. Smith, Los Alamos National Laboratory • William C. Turner, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • Michael C. F. Wiescher, Univ. of Notre Dame • Carl J. Williams, National Institute of Standards and Technology • Philip J. Wyatt, Wyatt Technology Corp. • Steven J. Zinkle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Section on Psychology

Niels Birbaumer, Universität Tübingen • Thomas H. Carr, Michigan State Univ. • Gary S. Dell, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Susan Tufts Fiske, Princeton Univ. • Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Univ. of Georgia • Susan C. Levine, Univ. of Chicago • Brent S. Mallinckrodt, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville • Michael Numan, Boston College • Mary A. Peterson, Univ. of Arizona • Seth Pollak, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Robert R. Provine, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County • Suparna Rajaram, Stony Brook Univ. • Michael Rugg, Univ. of California, Irvine

Section on Social, Economic, and Political Sciences

Lee Clarke, Rutgers Univ. • J. Michael Craig Jenkins, Ohio State Univ. • Gary E. Machlis, Univ. of Idaho • Linda G. Martin, RAND Corp. • Cecilia Ridgeway, Stanford Univ. • Robert Y. Shapiro, Columbia Univ.

Section on Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering

Peter W. Backlund, National Center for Atmospheric Research • Stephen Hilgartner, Cornell Univ. • Sharon Hemond Hrynkow, National Institutes of Health • Irwin M. Jacobs, Qualcomm Corp. • Kei Koizumi, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President • Norman Neureiter, AAAS • Julie Packard, Monterey Bay Aquarium

Section on Statistics

Charmaine B. Dean, Simon Fraser Univ. • David Draper, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz • Shili Lin, Ohio State Univ. • Neil Risch, Univ. of California, San Francisco • M. Elizabeth Halloran, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

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