Review

The NLRP3 Inflammasome: A Sensor for Metabolic Danger?

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Science  15 Jan 2010:
Vol. 327, Issue 5963, pp. 296-300
DOI: 10.1126/science.1184003

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Abstract

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) are all implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here we review mechanisms directing IL-1β production and its pathogenic role in islet dysfunction during chronic hyperglycemia. In doing so, we integrate previously disparate disease-driving mechanisms for IL-1β, ROS, and TXNIP in T2DM into one unifying model in which the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a central role. The NLRP3 inflammasome also drives IL-1β maturation and secretion in another disease of metabolic dysregulation, gout. Thus, we propose that the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the pathogenesis of T2DM and gout by functioning as a sensor for metabolic stress.

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