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Although China has achieved exceptional economic growth and has endeavored to protect the environment since its founding in 1949, it ranked 133rd among 146 countries assessed for environmental sustainability in 2005 (1). Many forces (e.g., socioeconomic, political, demographic, and technological) influence China's environmental sustainability. Any individual force can cause positive and negative impacts on sustainability directly or indirectly. This forum illustrates the complexity of forces that have affected China's sustainability over the past six decades and offers perspectives for the future.