Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines

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Science  28 May 2010:
Vol. 328, Issue 5982, pp. 1164-1168
DOI: 10.1126/science.1187512

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  1. Fig. 1

    Indicator trends for (A) the state of biodiversity, (B) pressures upon it, (C) responses to address its loss, and (D) the benefits humans derive from it. Data scaled to 1 in 1970 (or for first year of data if >1970), modeled (if >13 data points; see Table 1), and plotted on a logarithmic ordinate axis. Shading shows 95% confidence intervals except where unavailable (i.e., mangrove, seagrass, and forest extent, nitrogen deposition, and biodiversity aid). WBI, Wild Bird Index; WPSI, Waterbird Population Status Index; LPI, Living Planet Index; RLI, Red List Index; IBA, Important Bird Area; AZE, Alliance for Zero Extinction site; IAS, invasive alien species.

  2. Fig. 2

    Aggregated indices of (A) the state of biodiversity based on nine indicators of species’ population trends, habitat extent and condition, and community composition; (B) pressures on biodiversity based on five indicators of ecological footprint, nitrogen deposition, numbers of alien species, overexploitation, and climatic impacts; and (C) responses for biodiversity based on six indicators of protected area extent and biodiversity coverage, policy responses to invasive alien species, sustainable forest management, and biodiversity-related aid. Values in 1970 set to 1. Shading shows 95% confidence intervals derived from 1000 bootstraps. Significant positive/upward (open circles) and negative/downward (filled circles) inflections are indicated.