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Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates Innate Immune Memory in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes

Science  10 Sep 2010:
Vol. 329, Issue 5997, pp. 1353-1355
DOI: 10.1126/science.1190689

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Abstract

Mosquito midgut invasion by ookinetes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium disrupts the barriers that normally prevent the gut microbiota from coming in direct contact with epithelial cells. This triggers a long-lived response characterized by increased abundance of granulocytes, a subpopulation of hemocytes that circulates in the insect’s hemocoel, and enhanced immunity to bacteria that indirectly reduces survival of Plasmodium parasites upon reinfection. In mosquitoes, differentiation of hemocytes was necessary and sufficient to confer innate immune memory.

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