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Alleviating Neuropathic Pain Hypersensitivity by Inhibiting PKMζ in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Science  03 Dec 2010:
Vol. 330, Issue 6009, pp. 1400-1404
DOI: 10.1126/science.1191792

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Pain in the Brain

One of the major challenges in pain research is finding ways to reverse chronic pain. Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) at spinal or cortical levels is a cellular model of chronic pain. X.-Y. Li. et al. (p. 1400) studied the role of the enzyme protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) in neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the maintenance of LTP and for enhanced pain sensitivity after peripheral nerve injury in mice. Nerve injury appeared to lead to the up-regulation and phosphorylation of PKMζ. This triggered LTP at some synapses in the ACC by increasing the number of AMPA receptors. LTP was restricted to ACC neurons that were activated by nerve injury. Blocking PKMζ in the ACC days after nerve injury normalized pain behavior. Thus, PKMζ may represent a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain.

Abstract

Synaptic plasticity is a key mechanism for chronic pain. It occurs at different levels of the central nervous system, including spinal cord and cortex. Studies have mainly focused on signaling proteins that trigger these plastic changes, whereas few have addressed the maintenance of plastic changes related to chronic pain. We found that protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) maintains pain-induced persistent changes in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Peripheral nerve injury caused activation of PKMζ in the ACC, and inhibiting PKMζ by a selective inhibitor, ζ-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (ZIP), erased synaptic potentiation. Microinjection of ZIP into the ACC blocked behavioral sensitization. These results suggest that PKMζ in the ACC acts to maintain neuropathic pain. PKMζ could thus be a new therapeutic target for treating chronic pain.

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