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Induction of Colonic Regulatory T Cells by Indigenous Clostridium Species

Science  21 Jan 2011:
Vol. 331, Issue 6015, pp. 337-341
DOI: 10.1126/science.1198469

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Abstract

CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, Tregs were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted Treg cell accumulation. Colonization of mice by a defined mix of Clostridium strains provided an environment rich in transforming growth factor–β and affected Foxp3+ Treg number and function in the colon. Oral inoculation of Clostridium during the early life of conventionally reared mice resulted in resistance to colitis and systemic immunoglobulin E responses in adult mice, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to autoimmunity and allergy.

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