Vol 331, Issue 6024
Cancer Crusade at 40
Introduction to special issue
Applying DNA sequencing to cancer genomes is providing insights that have allowed researchers to turn some cancers into chronic diseases rather than deadly ones. Still, the ultimate goal is to kill the cancer.
In the 40 years since President Richard Nixon first declared "War on Cancer," the cancer campaign has changed therapy and saved lives, as demonstrated in this infographic Science has created of indicators for the seven deadliest cancers.
Even the most successful targeted therapies lose potency with time. Researchers hope to figure out how tumors escape; they aim to turn months of survival into years.
Felicia Knaul, a health economist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, is one half of a Mexican-Canadian power couple that aims to end the neglect of cancer as a disease of the poor—and will succeed, if anyone can, say colleagues.
This Week in Science
Products & Materials
News of the Week
In science news around the world this week, U.K. scientists are welcoming proposed changes to libel law, an oil spill is threatening endangered penguins in Tristan da Cunha, European space scientists are scrambling to rethink—and redesign—massive potential missions that NASA won't be helping support as planned, a model farm devoted to raising insects as food is set to open at the National University of Laos, and seven Guatemalan plaintiffs have filed suit in response to unethical medical studies run by U.S.-funded scientists in Guatemala in the 1940s.
This week's Newsmakers are Evan O'Dorney, who won first place and $100,000 in the Intel Science Talent Search; three stem cell scientists whose work will share this year's Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research and its accompanying $500,000; and seven medical researchers who have won Canada's Gairdner Foundation Awards, valued at CAD $100,000 each.
Space scientists at the University of Leicester are working to protect the people of Britain from a terrifying scourge: counterfeit whisky. And this week's numbers quantify the cost to ferry U.S. astronauts to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz spacecraft, the percentage of MIT's science and engineering faculty who are women, and the number of homes that could run on an underwater turbine array just authorized by the Scottish government.
News & Analysis
Science has created a map that provides a snapshot of the number of nuclear reactors in operation and under construction worldwide, locations of power plants in relation to seismic hazard zones, and reactions to events in Japan in some countries.
Risk calculations for radiation exposure are based heavily on a 63-year study of 94,000 people who survived the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan in August 1945. It is one of the largest, longest population studies ever done; for radiation safety, it is the gold standard.
Over the past 5 years, a few promising candidate drugs designed to ward off the effects of radiation exposure have begun to undergo animal, and even human, testing. Still, only a few companies and academic groups are addressing this unmet need.
Nuclear reactor designers say that the reactors being built or planned today are quite different—and they say much safer—than those that are still smoldering in Japan.
The Fukushima cleanup operation is likely to resemble the protracted cleanup at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Pennsylvania, where one reactor experienced a partial meltdown in 1979.
Japan's scientific community has been quietly taking stock of how extensively the magnitude-9 earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March damaged facilities and experiments. The news is mixed.
Very ancient stone tools help confirm what many have long suspected: Clovis hunters, with their distinctive spear points, were not the first to people the Americas.
Books et al.
Synthesizing theoretical and empirical perspectives, Bourke presents an expanded view of social evolution to explain the major transitions between successive levels in the biological hierarchy.
Essays on Science and Society
A new electron diffraction method reveals a tetrahedral bond network in aluminum that can account for the directional nature of its mechanical properties.
Nanometer-sized grain copper confined by a graded substrate leads to a material with both high strength and high ductility.
Differences in surface charge and water mobility allow slightly different inorganic macroions to self-assemble separately.
Tiarajudens extends the date of dental occlusion and suggests why the members of this Permian group were such diverse and successful herbivores.
Participation in tropical forest governance by local people results in positive outcomes for conservation and subsistence.
CD40 immunotherapy shows efficacy in treating pancreatic cancer in mice and humans by eliciting antitumor immunity.
The process by which animal cells are physically separated after cell division is dissected in molecular detail.
Fibroblast growth factor 19 regulates liver metabolism through a mechanism distinct from that of insulin.
A histone methyltransferase and an RNA export protein team up to clobber aberrant RNAs in fission yeast.
From the AAAS Office of Publishing and Member Services