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Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study

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Science  27 May 2011:
Vol. 332, Issue 6033, pp. 1100-1104
DOI: 10.1126/science.1197754

Article Information

vol. 332 no. 6033 1100-1104

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Print ISSN: 
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History: 
  • Received for publication September 14, 2010
  • Accepted for publication April 6, 2011

Author Information

  1. Michele J. Gelfand1,*,
  2. Jana L. Raver2,
  3. Lisa Nishii3,
  4. Lisa M. Leslie4,
  5. Janetta Lun1,
  6. Beng Chong Lim5,
  7. Lili Duan6,
  8. Assaf Almaliach7,
  9. Soon Ang8,
  10. Jakobina Arnadottir9,
  11. Zeynep Aycan10,
  12. Klaus Boehnke11,
  13. Pawel Boski12,
  14. Rosa Cabecinhas13,
  15. Darius Chan14,
  16. Jagdeep Chhokar15,
  17. Alessia D’Amato16,
  18. Montse Ferrer17,
  19. Iris C. Fischlmayr18,
  20. Ronald Fischer19,
  21. Marta Fülöp20,
  22. James Georgas21,
  23. Emiko S. Kashima22,
  24. Yoshishima Kashima23,
  25. Kibum Kim24,
  26. Alain Lempereur25,
  27. Patricia Marquez26,
  28. Rozhan Othman27,
  29. Bert Overlaet28,
  30. Penny Panagiotopoulou29,
  31. Karl Peltzer30,
  32. Lorena R. Perez-Florizno31,
  33. Larisa Ponomarenko32,
  34. Anu Realo33,
  35. Vidar Schei34,
  36. Manfred Schmitt35,
  37. Peter B. Smith36,
  38. Nazar Soomro37,
  39. Erna Szabo18,
  40. Nalinee Taveesin38,
  41. Midori Toyama39,
  42. Evert Van de Vliert40,
  43. Naharika Vohra41,
  44. Colleen Ward42,
  45. Susumu Yamaguchi43
  1. 1Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
  2. 2Queen’s School of Business, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.
  3. 3Cornell University Industrial Labor Relations School, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
  4. 4Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
  5. 5Ministry of Defense, Singapore and Nanyang Business School, Defense Technology Towers, 5 Depot Road, #16-01 Tower B, Singapore.
  6. 6McKinsey & Company, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
  7. 7BIP Institute of Psychology Ltd., Vita Towers, 11 Ben-Gurion Street, Bney-Brak 51260, Israel.
  8. 8Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue 639798, Singapore.
  9. 9Kaplaskjolsvegur 29, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland.
  10. 10Department of Psychology, Koc University, Sariyer 34450, Turkey.
  11. 11Bremen International Graduate School of Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, D-28759 Bremen, Germany.
  12. 12Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities, 03-815 Warsaw, Poland.
  13. 13University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
  14. 14Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3rd Floor, Sino Building, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.
  15. 15Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad-380015, India.
  16. 16CENTRUM Catolica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima 33, Peru.
  17. 17Social Psychology Department, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
  18. 18Johannes Kepler University, Institute for International Management, Altenbergerstrasse 69, 4040 Linz, Austria.
  19. 19School of Psychology, Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand.
  20. 20Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Victor Hugo Street 18-22, Budapest 1132, Hungary.
  21. 21University of Athens, 11 Herodou Attikou, Athens 106 74, Greece.
  22. 22School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia.
  23. 23Psychological Sciences University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.
  24. 24School of Social Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Myungryun-dong 3 ga, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-745, Korea.
  25. 25ESSEC Business School, Av. Bernard Hirsch, B.P. 50105, 95021 Cergy Pontoise Cedex, France.
  26. 26University of San Diego, 235 Olin Hall, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.
  27. 2721 Jalan 5C/6, 43650 B B Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
  28. 28KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 67, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
  29. 29University of Patras, 26500 Rio, Patras, Greece.
  30. 30Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
  31. 31Investigadora Colegio de la Fontera Norte, Km 18.5 carretera escénica Tijuana - Ensenada, San Antonio del Mar, Tijuana, Baja California C.P. 22560, México.
  32. 32Psychology Department, Odessa National University, Dvorianskaya str. 2, Odessa 67027, Ukraine.
  33. 33Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Tiigi 78, Tartu 50410, Estonia.
  34. 34Department of Strategy and Management, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Breiviksveien 40, 5045 Bergen, Norway.
  35. 35Universität Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829 Landau, Germany.
  36. 36Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK.
  37. 37Department of Psychological Testing, Guidance and Research, University of Sindh, Elsa Kazi Campus, Hyderabad 71000, Pakistan.
  38. 3833 Soonvijai 4, Bangkok 10310, Thailand.
  39. 39Department of Psychology Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588, Japan.
  40. 40University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
  41. 41Indian Institute of Management, Wing 12, IIM Campus, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380015, India.
  42. 42School of Psychology, P.O. Box 600, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140, New Zealand.
  43. 43Department of Social Psychology, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
  1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mgelfand{at}psyc.umd.edu

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