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Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth

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Science  15 Jul 2011:
Vol. 333, Issue 6040, pp. 301-306
DOI: 10.1126/science.1205106

Article Information

vol. 333 no. 6040 301-306

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    Author Information

    1. James A. Estes1,*,
    2. John Terborgh2,
    3. Justin S. Brashares3,
    4. Mary E. Power4,
    5. Joel Berger5,
    6. William J. Bond6,
    7. Stephen R. Carpenter7,
    8. Timothy E. Essington8,
    9. Robert D. Holt9,
    10. Jeremy B. C. Jackson10,
    11. Robert J. Marquis11,
    12. Lauri Oksanen12,
    13. Tarja Oksanen13,
    14. Robert T. Paine14,
    15. Ellen K. Pikitch15,
    16. William J. Ripple16,
    17. Stuart A. Sandin10,
    18. Marten Scheffer17,
    19. Thomas W. Schoener18,
    20. Jonathan B. Shurin19,
    21. Anthony R. E. Sinclair20,
    22. Michael E. Soulé21,
    23. Risto Virtanen22,
    24. David A. Wardle23
    1. 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA.
    2. 2Center for Tropical Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Post Office Box 90381, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
    3. 3Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
    4. 4Department of Integrative Biology, Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
    5. 5Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA and Wildlife Conservation Society, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA.
    6. 6Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    7. 7Center for Limnology, 680 North Park Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
    8. 8School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    9. 9Department of Biology, Post Office Box 118525, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    10. 10Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
    11. 11Department of Biology, University of Missouri–St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA.
    12. 12Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland and Department of Natural Sciences, Finnmark University College, N-9509 Alta, Norway.
    13. 13Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland and Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-90087 Umeå, Sweden.
    14. 14Department of Biology, Box 351800, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    15. 15School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
    16. 16Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, 314 Richardson Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.
    17. 17Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Post Office Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen, Netherlands.
    18. 18Section of Evolution and Ecology and Center for Population Biology, 6328 Storer Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    19. 19Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    20. 20Centre for Biodiversity Research, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    21. 21Post Office Box 1808, Paonia, CO 81428, USA.
    22. 22Department of Biology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    23. 23Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE901-83 Umeä, Sweden.
    1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jestes{at}ucsc.edu

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