Tenfold Population Increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal–to–Modern Human Transition

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Science  29 Jul 2011:
Vol. 333, Issue 6042, pp. 623-627
DOI: 10.1126/science.1206930

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European Neandertals were replaced by modern human populations from Africa ~40,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence from the best-documented region of Europe shows that during this replacement human populations increased by one order of magnitude, suggesting that numerical supremacy alone may have been a critical factor in facilitating this replacement.

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