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Out of Tibet: Pliocene Woolly Rhino Suggests High-Plateau Origin of Ice Age Megaherbivores

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Science  02 Sep 2011:
Vol. 333, Issue 6047, pp. 1285-1288
DOI: 10.1126/science.1206594

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  1. Fig. 1

    (A) Dorsal view of the skull (upper), occlusal view of upper cheek teeth (middle), and occlusal view of lower cheek teeth (lower) of the new woolly rhino C. thibetana sp. nov. (IVPP V15908). (B) Origin, distribution, and dispersal of woolly rhinos in Eurasia, simplified from Kahlke and Lacombat (3). The late Pleistocene distribution of C. antiquitatis is shown in green; the distribution of other Coelodonta species is shown by the circled numbers. [The life reconstruction of a woolly rhino is by L.K.S.; the reconstruction of the skull and mandible of C. thibetana is by Shen Wenlong]

  2. Fig. 2

    (A) Phylogenetic position of C. thibetana within the Rhinocerotini. A strict consensus cladogram of nine most parsimonious trees plotted against geological time is shown, with colored boxes representing the known time period of each species. The color of the box indicates geographical distribution as follows: red, Africa; blue, Eurasia; purple, Far East (including East Asia and Southeast Asia). We analyzed a modified subset of characters and taxa from Antoine (24); see SOM for additional details. (B) δ13C values of bulk and serial enamel samples from herbivores and (C) the mean enamel δ18O values of obligate drinkers in the Zanda Basin. (D to F) Three large mammals from the Zanda fauna: (D) posterior view of the horn core of a blue sheep ?Pseudois sp. from ZD0712 (~3.5 Ma); scale = 10 cm; (E) dorsal view of the skull of a primitive snow leopard [Panthera (Uncia) sp.] from ZD1001 (~4.4 Ma); scale is in millimeters; (F) anterior view of the horn core of an ancestral Tibetan antelope, Qurliqnoria from ZD0745 (~4.2 Ma); scale is in millimeters. See also Table 1 for zoogeographic scenarios.